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英语音标及字母组合对照

 
发布部门:  发布时间:2014-12-22  浏览次数:

 

英语国际音标表(48个)

元音(20个)

短元音

[əe]   [e]    [i]    [כ]    [۸]   [u]   [ə]

长元音

[i:]   [כ:]   [a:]   [u:]  [ə:]

双元音

[ei]   [ai]   [əu]   [au]   [כi]   [iə]   [eə]   [uə]

辅音(28个)

  轻辅音

[p]        [ t] [ k]   [f]   [θ]  [s]

浊辅音

[b]   [d]     [g]    [v]    [ð]    [z] 

轻辅音

[ʃ]   [ h] [ts]   [tʃ]   [tr] 

浊辅音

[ʒ]   [ r]      [dz]       [dʒ]  [dr] 

鼻音

[m]     [n ]    [ŋ] 

半元音

[ j ]    [ w ]

边音

[ ǀ ]

 

 

新旧英语国际音标对照表

Vowels

元音

i:

І

e

æ

З:

ə

Λ

u:

ʊ

ɔ:

i:

i

e

æ

ə:

ə

Λ

u:

u

ɔ:

ɒ

ɑ:

eI

aI

ɔI

əʊ

aʊ

ʊə

ɔ

ɑ:

ei

ai

ɔi

əu

au

εə

 

Consonants

辅音

无变化

p

b

t

d

k

g

f

v

s

z

ϑ

ð

m

n

ŋ

l

r

h

w

j

ʒ

t∫

dʒ

tr

dr

ts

dz

                         

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

英语音标及字母组合对照

序号

音标

字母

例词

元音(20个)

1

[i:]

ee

three  tree  green  sheep  meet  beef  see  seek

ea

eat  tea  meat  leave  lead  teacher  team  mean  speak  clean  please

e

he  she  me

ie

piece

ei

receive  ceiling

2

[ I ]

i

sit  picture  it  is list six  mix  fix  fit  pig  big  build  miss

y

myth  many  twenty  happy  dictionary

e

Defect   decide

ui

 

u

 

a

 

3

[ æ ]

a

bag  hand  and  ant  happy  hat  map  mad  bad  black  back  glad  flag  shall  man 

4

[e]

ea

head  bread  pleasure

e

elephant  electric  remember  sell  shell  lesson  better   bed   desk   hotel  yes

a

many  any

5

[ε:]

ir

  girl  shirt   skirt  thirty  thirteen  third   bird 

ur

turn   burn   murder   nurse   turtle   Thursday   burger

ear

learn   earn  earth  heard

er

term   her  nerd  serve

or

work  worm  work  world

6

[ε]

er

teacher   leader  remember  player  speaker  farmer powder

or

doctor   actor  mayor  author  tractor

ou

delicious   gracious   pleasure

ar

familiar   collar  dollar

o

together  tomorrow  today   shallop   lesson  Washington  control   polite 

a

around  account  ago  elephant   manta  banana  Canada  Japan  china

e

men  listen

u

famulus  Saturday

7

[a:]

ar

car  farm  card  arm  garden

a

fast  class  last  glass  plant  aunt  calm

8

[ ʌ ]

u

up  supper  lunch  fun  gun  hunt   cup   bus

o

come  mother  dose  brother  love  above 

ou

trouble   rough  flourish

oo

blood  flood

9

[ɔ: ]

al

small  wall  talk  tall  hall  ball  call   walk 

or

short  more lord  horse  for  forty  sport   door  floor  store 

au

author  caught   autumn

our

four   mourn  court  bought 

ar

warm  quarrel  quarter

10

[ɔ] ([ɒ])

o

hot  lost  lot  fox  box   mop  hop  loss  collar  not

a

want  wash   watch

ou

 

11

[u:]

oo

food  moon  room  gloom  broom  doom  goose  tooth

o

shoe  do  two

u

true    truth   blue   full   prude

12

[u]

oo

look   good   foot  book  wood

ou

should   could 

u

put  full   bull  pull  push

o

woman   wolf  

13

[ei]

a

name  cake  late  gate  plane   April

ay

play  say  may  way  

ea

great  break

ai

rain   paint    plain

ey

they  grey

14

[ai]

i

bike  fine  find  die  nine   light  night   high

y

my  try  fly  eye

15

[au]

 

ou

house  out  flour  ground  account  count  sound  loud  around  mouse

ow

flower  down  now  cow  how  town

16

[εu]

o

home  cold  go  no  phone  host  ghost 

ow

know  low  below   grow  blow  show  flow

oa

boat   coat   goal

17

[ ɔɪ ]

oy

boy  toy    joy 

oi

oil   soil  voice  choice

18

[iε]

eer

beer  deer 

ear

ear   near 

 

here  fierce    idea

19

[ ɛə ]

ear

pear  bear 

air

chair  air  fair 

ere

there  where

 

care

20

[uε] [auə]

our

hour   tour

ower

flower  shower

辅音

1

[p]

p

pot pig put people piano

2

[b]

b

book bag big job bear but

3

[t]

t

tooth teacher tea table task

4

[d]

d

dog dig duck dad double

5

[k]

k

keep   cake 

c

cake cat cup cap

ck

socks

6

[g]

g

grandpa girl green good god

7

[f]

f

father fat foot full fit

8

[v]

V

five very vent drive vary

9

[s]

S

small study bus yes must

10

[z]

Z

jazz zoo zero clothes zig

11

[θ]

th

eighth forth tenth eleventh ninth

12

[δ]

th

those these that this there

13

[ʃ ]

sh

cash bush shake shoe ship

14

[ʒ]

sure

measure  pleasure  leisure

15

[]

th

chair  chicken  lunch  change

16

[]

j

jack  job

17

[tr]

tr

tree truck train

18

[dr]

dr

dress drink drain

19

[ts]

ts

students coats cats

20

[dz]

ds

beds odds codes

21

[m]

m

mum moon morning

22

[n]

n

moon nut needle

23

[ŋ]

ng

ink link ring

24

[h]

h

hello hurry hey

25

[l]

l

look leg lake

26

[r]

r

rain radio room

27

[w]

w

window wake week

28

[ j]

y

yellow yes you

 

 

 

x光透视,含有“克斯”音,英语[ks] [ks] [ks]

 

 

 

qu [kw]

 

 

 

字母ccecicy字母组合中,读[s],其他情况读[s]

         

 

 

 

 

原形

过去式

过去分词

原形

过去式

过去分词

原形

过去式

过去分词

be

am/is

was

been   1

build

built

built    9

feel

felt

felt    16

are

were

lend

lent

lent

keep

kept

kept

do/does

did

done

send

sent

sent

leave

left

left

go/goes

went

gone

spend

spent

spent

sleep

slept

slept

have/has

had

had

lose

lost

lost

sweep

swept

swept

bet

bet

bet   2

make

made

made

can

could

      17

cost

cost

cost

hear

heard

heard   10

shall

should

 

cut

cut

cut

deal

dealt

dealt

will

would

 

hit

hit

hit

mean

meant

meant

may

might

 

hurt

hurt

hurt

hold

held

held    11

must

must

 

let

let

let

sell

sold

sold

bear

bore

born   18

put

put

put

tell

told

told

borne

read

read

read

begin

began

begun   12

beat

beat

beat

set

set

set

drink

drank

drunk

beaten

shut

shut

shut

ring

rang

rung

forget

forgot

forgot

spread

spread

spread

sing

sang

sung

forgotten

become

became

become 3

sink

sank

sunk

get

got

got

come

came

come

swim

swam

swum

gotten

overcome

overcame

overcome

break

broke

broken 13

hide

hid

hid

run

ran

run

choose

chose

chosen

hidden

bring

brought

brought 4

freeze

froze

frozen

show

showed

shown

buy

bought

bought

speak

spoke

spoken

showed

fight

fought

fought

steal

stole

stolen

burn

burnt

burnt

think

thought

thought

tear

tore

torn

burned

burned

catch

caught

caught  5

wear

wore

worn

dream

dreamt

dreamt

teach

taught

taught

blow

blew

blown 14

dreamed

dreamed

feed

fed

fed    6

grow

grew

grown

hang

hung

hung

lead

led

led

know

knew

known

hanged

hanged

meet

met

met

throw

threw

thrown

learn

learnt

learnt

shoot

shot

shot

draw

drew

drawn

learned

learned

speed

sped

sped

fly

flew

flown

lie

lay

lain

lay

laid

laid   7

drive

drove

driven 15

lied

lied

pay

paid

paid

ride

rode

ridden

light

lit

lit

say

said

said

rise

rose

risen

lighted

lighted

babysit

babysat

babysat 8

write

wrote

written

shine

shone

shone

sit

sat

sat

fall

fell

fallen

shined

shined

win

won

won

give

gave

given

smell

smelt

smelt

dig

dug

dug

mistake

mistook

mistaken

smelled

smelled

stick

stuck

stuck

shake

shook

shaken

spell

spelt

spelt

find

found

found

take

took

taken

spelled

spelled

stand

stood

stood

eat

ate

eaten

wake

woke

waken

understand

understood

understood

see

saw

seen

waked

waked

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

原形

过去式

过去分词

原形

过去式

过去分词

原形

过去式

过去分词

be

am/is

 

 

build

 

 

feel

 

 

are

 

lend

 

 

keep

 

 

do/does

 

 

send

 

 

leave

 

 

go/goes

 

 

spend

 

 

sleep

 

 

have/has

 

 

lose

 

 

sweep

 

 

bet

 

 

make

 

 

can

 

 

cost

 

 

hear

 

 

shall

 

 

cut

 

 

deal

 

 

will

 

 

hit

 

 

mean

 

 

may

 

 

hurt

 

 

hold

 

 

must

 

 

let

 

 

sell

 

 

bear

 

 

put

 

 

tell

 

 

 

read

 

 

begin

 

 

beat

 

 

set

 

 

drink

 

 

 

shut

 

 

ring

 

 

forget

 

 

spread

 

 

sing

 

 

 

become

 

 

sink

 

 

get

 

 

come

 

 

swim

 

 

 

overcome

 

 

break

 

 

hide

 

 

run

 

 

choose

 

 

 

bring

 

 

freeze

 

 

show

 

 

buy

 

 

speak

 

 

 

fight

 

 

steal

 

 

burn

 

 

think

 

 

tear

 

 

 

 

catch

 

 

wear

 

 

dream

 

 

teach

 

 

blow

 

 

 

 

feed

 

 

grow

 

 

hang

 

 

lead

 

 

know

 

 

 

 

meet

 

 

throw

 

 

learn

 

 

shoot

 

 

draw

 

 

 

 

speed

 

 

fly

 

 

lie

 

 

lay

 

 

drive

 

 

 

 

pay

 

 

ride

 

 

light

 

 

say

 

 

rise

 

 

 

 

babysit

 

 

write

 

 

shine

 

 

sit

 

 

fall

 

 

 

 

win

 

 

give

 

 

smell

 

 

dig

 

 

mistake

 

 

 

 

stick

 

 

shake

 

 

spell

 

 

find

 

 

take

 

 

 

 

stand

 

 

eat

 

 

wake

 

 

understand

 

 

see

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

时间

2014-11-8 周六(第二次)

词汇

《词汇书》拼写 第一周【第二课】

新概念2

Lesson 456课【读课文,语法练习题-现在进行时,现在完成时】

语法

数词

作业

《词汇书》【第三课】单词会读会拼写

问题

1.读新概念课文时有些单词发音有问题,发现是英语音标不认识。

2.英语语法-现在进行时,现在完成时这两个时态没有问题。

3.找一些阅读资料提升词汇量。

 

 

 

 

时间

2014-11-10 周一(第三次)

词汇

《词汇书》拼写 第一周【第三课】

音标

【元音音标】会认,会读

新概念2

Lesson 7【读课文,语法练习题-过去进行时】

语法

代词

阅读理解

《中考阅读》3

作业

《词汇书》【第四课】,找初中不规则动词表,背前两页

问题

1.第三课单词拼写各别有几个没记住,再背。

2.在学时语法-过去时时,发现动词的过去式,过去分词都不记得拼写了。

3.阅读理解文章意思看懂了,但是提还是有做错的,努力提高正确率。

 

 

 

时间

2014-11-12 周三 (第四次)

词汇

《词汇书》拼写 第一周【第四课】、读【第五课】

音标

【元音音标】复习,读音

新概念2

Lesson 8【读课文,语法练习题-形容词和副词的级】

语法

形容词,副词

阅读

《中考阅读》新题型做了3篇,都能做对。

作业

1.《词汇书》【第四课,第五课】继续背。 2.不规则动词表继续背。

问题

1.英语音标元音能认识也能读出来了,有助于读单词,新概念28课读的比较熟练了。但是各别几个元音发音总是忘记,再记。下次学习字母组合音标。

2.词汇书背的还是有忘记的,有一部分拼写不出来。

3.阅读理解找一些难度大的再练习。

 

时间

2014-11-15 周六 (第五次)

 

词汇

《词汇书》

 

音标

【元音音标】

 

新概念2

Lesson 9【读课文,语法练习题-介词】

 

语法

介词

 

阅读

《中考阅读》

 

作业

 

 

问题

 

 
 
 

 

       过去进行时的讲与练

 

  过去进行时表示过去某一时刻或者某段时间正在进行或发生的动作,常和表过去的时间状语连用,如: I was doing my homework at this time yesterday.昨天的这个时候我正在做作业。

          They were waiting for you yesterday.他们昨天一直在等你。

     

 过去进行时的构成:

  肯定形式:主语+was/were+V-ing

  否定形式:主语+was not (wasn't)/were not (weren't)+V-ing

  疑问形式:Was/Were+主语+V-ing。  

 

 基本用法:

  1.过去进行时表示过去某一段时间或某一时刻正在进行的动作。常与之连用的时间状语有,at that time/moment, (at) this time yesterday (last night/Sunday/week…), at+点钟+yesterday (last night / Sunday…)when sb. did sth等时间状语从句,如:

    What were you doing at 7p.m. yesterday? 昨天晚上七点你在干什么?

    I first met Mary three years ago. She was working at a radio shop at the time. 我第一次遇到玛丽是在三年前,当时她在一家无线电商店工作。

    I was cooking when she knocked at the door. 她敲门时我正在做饭。

        2. when后通常用表示暂短性动词,while后通常用表示持续性动词,因此它所引导的状语从句中,谓语动词常用进行时态,如:

    When the car exploded I was walking past it.= While I was walking past the car it exploded.

        3.when用作并列连词时,主句常用进行时态,从句则用一般过去时,表示主句动作发生的过程中,另一个意想不到的动作发生了。如:

    I was walking in the street when someone called me. 我正在街上走时突然有人喊我。

        4. when作并列连词,表示(这时)突然之意时,第一个并列分句用过去进行时,when引导的并列分句用一般过去时。如:

    I was taking a walk when I met him. 我正在散步,突然遇见了他。

We were playing outside when it began to rain. 我们正在外边玩,这时下起雨来了

 

一般过去时与过去进行时的用法比较:

    一般过去时表示在过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态,而过去进行时则表示在过去某个特定时间正在进行的动作

    如:Tom wrote a letter to his friend last night.

        汤姆昨晚给他的朋友写了封信。(信写完了)

        Tom was writing a letter to his friend last night.

        汤姆昨晚一直在给他的朋友写信。(信不一定写完,只是强调了动作的延续性)。

 

 过去进行时和一般过去时的差别:

    一般过去时表示在过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态,而过去进行时则表示在过去某个特定时间正在进行的动作

    例如:  I was reading an English novel last night. 昨晚我在看一本英文小说。(可能没看完)

            I read an English novel last night  我昨晚看了一本英文小说。(已经看完)

 

过去进行时练习

二、   用动词的适当形式填空。

1. While we __________ (wait) for the bus, a girl __________ (run) up to us.

2. I __________ (telephone) a friend when Bob __________ (come) in.

3. Jim __________ (jump) on the bus as it __________ (move) away.

4. We __________ (test) the new machine when the electricity __________ (go) off.

5. She __________ (not want) to stay in bed while the others ________________ (all, work) in the fields.

6. While mother ________ (put) Cathy to bed, the door bell ________ (ring).

7. As I __________ (walk) in the park, it __________ (begin) to rain.

8. Even when she ___________ (be) a child she ________________ (already, think) of becoming a ballerina (芭蕾舞演员).

9. It was quite late at night. George __________ (read) and Amy __________ (play) her needle when they __________ (hear) a knock at the door.

10. There __________ (be) a group round the fire when they __________ (reach) it. An old woman __________ (sit) on the ground near the kettle; two small children __________ (lie) near her; a donkey __________ (bend) his head over a tall girl.

1. I _____ (have) my breakfast at half past six yesterday morning.

2. Mary _____ (go) over her lessons from six to seven last night. John and peter ____(do) the same thing.

3. What _____ you ___ (do) at that time?   We _____ (watch) TV.

4. Was your father at home yesterday evening? Yes ,he was. He _____ (listen) to the radio.

5. They _____(not make) a model ship when I saw him.

6. _____ they ____ (have) a meeting at 4 yesterday afternoon?
No, they _____. They _____ (clean) the classroom.

7. ______ it ______(rain) when you left school?  Yes, it ____. (No, it ____)

8. What _____ your father _____ (do) when he was your age?

9. One day, Edison _____ (wait) for a train to arrive, and suddenly a little boy ran to the track(轨道) to play.

10. He asked me if I ______ (go) fishing that afternoon.

11. The three of them were in a hurry because their plane _____ (leave) in five minutes.

12. In a letter, john told us that he _____ (come) to china next month.

13. When the bell rang, jenny _____ (wait) in her seat.

14. She _____ (make) her dress the whole afternoon.

15. While my father ____  (look) through the evening paper, he suddenly ____ a cry.

16. When I ____ (come) in the room, he ____ (see) me, for he ____ (read) something

17. When we _____ (arrive) at the village, it _____ (get) dark and it _____ (rain) hard.

18. I _____ (know) you ____(wait) for me here.

19. One day a little monkey ____ (play) in a tall tree. A mother crocodile(鳄鱼) ____ (look) for food near the bank.

20. What ____ your father ____ (do) yesterday evening? He ____  (study) at the evening school.

21. Later his parents found that he _____  (sit) on some eggs.

22. When he knocked at the door, my aunt ____  (cook)

23. The students ______ (sing) and ____ (dance) happily on the playground at that time.

24. I ____  (write) a letter when the door bell rang.

25. We had no classed at that time. We ____ (plant) trees.

三、 选择题。

  1.    I ______ cooked a meal when you _____ me.
a. cooked, were ringing         b. was cooking, rang     
c. was cooking, were ringing        d. cooked, rang

  2.    He said he _____ to draw a plane on the blackboard at that time.
a. tries            b. tried           c. was trying          d. will try

  3.    While she ______ TV, she ______ a sound outside the room.
a. was watching, was hearing        b. watched, was hearing
c. watched, heard                        d. was watching, heard

  4.    They _____ a football game from 7 to 9 last night.
a. were watching           b. watch         c. watched      d. are watching

  5.    What book ____ you ______ when I ____ you at four yesterday afternoon?
a. did, read, was seeing                b. did, read, saw
c. were, reading, saw                  d. were, reading, was seeing

  6.    It was Friday evening. Mr and Mrs. Green _____ ready to fly to England.
a. are getting          b. get      c. were getting              d. got

  7.    Lei Feng _____ always _____ of others when he ______ in the army.
a. is, thinking, was        b. was, thinking, is        c. did, think, is              d. was, thinking, was

  8.    A girl ______ my pen fall off the table when she _____ me.
a. saw, passed  b. was seeing, passed c. was seeing, passed  d. was seeing, was passing

  9.    We ____ for tom at ten last Sunday. He often kept us ______.
a. were waiting, waiting        b. were waiting, wait     c. waited, waiting   d. waited, wait

  10.   He ____ his father on the farm the whole afternoon last Saturday.
a. helps          b. would help         c. was helping        d. is helping

  11.   While mother _______ some washing, I _____ a kite for Kate.
a. did, made           b. was doing, made c. was doing, was making    d. did, was making

  12.   “_______ you angry then?” “they ______ too much noise.”
a. are, were making              b. were, were making    c. are, made    d. were, made

 13.   He ____ some cooking at that time, so _____ me
a. did, heard   b. did, didn’t hear  c. was doing, heard        d. was doing, didn’t hear

  14.   This time yesterday jack _____ his bike. He _____ TV
a. repaired, didn’t watch              b. was repairing, watched            
c. repaired, watched              d. was repairing, wasn’t watching

  15.   His parents wanted to know how he _____ on with his new classmates.
a. was getting         b. gets     c. is getting     d. will get

四、 翻译。

1  昨天这个时候你们英语老师在做什么?她在和一些家长谈话吗?

 

2  当我离开的时候他正在画一幅世界地图。

 

3  当你看见他们的时候他们在干什么?他们在打扫教室。

 

4  那时二班的学生没在操场上踢足球,他们在打篮球。

 

5  一天,母亲下班回家的时候,约翰在写给一个朋友写信。

 

6  上周五一下午,学生们在干什么?他们一直在往墙上贴海报。

 

7  昨天这个时候,一些学生在植树,一些学生在给小树浇水。

 

8  老师走进教室的时候,学术们正在谈论当天的新闻。

 

9  老虎等猴子的时候,他听到一个声音。

 

10.  今天上午放学的时候在下雨吗?是的,天正下着大雨。

 

 

 

 







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